Reply You have made an interesting point that may be linked to the people who lived before the great flood, and those who did survive it, and propagated the human race thereafter. However, who exactly were these people and what did they leave behind as proof of their existence, and the proof of they being of more ancient origins than the Sumerians and Akkadians? You provided us with a list of the Slavic nations that are of modern times, but if your theory is correct, what were these people known as, specifically?
For one thing, there are several examples of foreign rulers attempting to present themselves as part of the ancient pharaonic tradition. During times of foreign rule the Egyptians frequently adopted certain means to maintain and emphasize the distinctness of their cultural heritage.
Both attempts, those of foreigners to acquire an Egyptian identity as well as those of the Egyptians to maintain it, offer some telling insights into what being Egyptian was. Although we cannot be certain, it is likely that in these efforts of both parties, we are shown behavior which probably closely paralleled events in other, less documented eras of Egyptian history, such as the Hyksos Period.
Most importantly, they ruled within Egypt. These factors were in force to an extent which was unparalleled anywhere else within the Hellenistic world where the Greeks had placed themselves to rule over indigenous populations. In the case of Egypt, the Ptolemies found themselves in control of a highly sophisticated ancient civilization and administration, not a group of cloddish barbarians.
The Egyptians had as high a level of culture as the Greeks, but it was quite different from theirs.
The fact that the Egyptians stuck to their ways annoyed and puzzled the Greeks and gave the Egyptians the reputation as being stubborn, ornery, and, for lack of a better word, reversed.
On the latter point, we should listen to Herodotos describing his impression of Egypt as he visited it Book 2, Among them the women run the market and shops, while the men, indoors, weave; and, in this weaving, while other people push the woof upwards, the Egyptians push it down.
The men carry burdens on their heads, the women carry theirs on their shoulders. The women urinate standing upright, while the men do it squatting.
No woman is dedicated to any god, male or female, but men to all gods and goddesses. There is no obligation on sons to maintain their parents if they are unwilling, but an absolute necessity lies on the daughters to do so, whether they will or not. Lloyd, not incidentally, is the author of the relevant chapter in our textbook.
Everything has been uncompromisingly customized for Greek consumption and cast unequivocally into a Greek mold. The Ptolemaic regime may have modernized several aspects of the Egyptian economy, particularly with the introduction of coinage that made transactions much more efficient, yet we should also bear in mind that Egypt already had had a successful agricultural system in place for several millennia when the Greeks appeared.
In the end run it was not possible to exclude the indigenous population and at the same time to compete successfully against the other nations of the Mediterranean.
It is also important to remember that the Greeks were never evenly distributed throughout Egypt, especially at the beginning of Ptolemaic rule. The two cultures existed side-by-side, but they seldom truly mixed in any meaningful fashion.
It was possible for an Egyptian to Hellenize, but the process was rather formidable, since it essentially required abandoning the native culture almost totally. To a great extent in the past this had been true of foreigners entering Egypt who had wished to adopt the Egyptian way of life.
Language and dress, rather than any notions of race or ethnicity, were the means by which one became Egyptian or Greek. In general, one does not really see anything quite like what we would consider as racism until perhaps Roman times.
If nothing else, the willingness of Greek men to marry Egyptian women — not merely to have them as concubines — speaks loudly to that point. In both societies there was a great degree of snobbishness towards outsiders.
Clannishness of both Greeks and Egyptians certainly existed, but this is to be expected given the cultural and language differences in the towns where they lived side-by-side.
Certainly one of the most telling indicators in this matter was the prevalence of intermarriage. Intermarriage was even more common out in the countryside and among the military where there was not as much of a wealth and status difference between the Egyptians and Greeks.
In all fairness, it should be pointed out that in almost every case the documentation shows a Greek or Macedonian man marrying an Egyptian woman and seldom an Egyptian man marrying a Greek woman. The law seems to have been that the children inherited their ethnic identification through the father.
However, in the end run, Egyptian culture was always more tolerant in its outlook than the Greek. For another critical aspect of making a cross-cultural transformation in Ptolemaic society, we should consider a word borrowed from contemporary Greek society, i.
Here again, both the Greek and Egyptian cultures were in agreement that in order for one to enter their respective societies, one had to speak their language. Nevertheless, the Greeks tended to keep church and state more separate, except, strikingly enough, in Ptolemaic Egypt. These rulers strongly promoted a cult of the divine king, even while the monarch was still alive.
This cult, furthermore, was aimed primarily at the Greek part of the population. The Egyptian temples were the main repositories of the native cultured and the primary site of native elite intellectual life.
The Greek administration recognized this from the beginning and acted accordingly.While flood myths are common to practically every culture on the planet, they differ significantly in detail. This article describes hundreds of flood myths originating from cultures all over the globe.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western benjaminpohle.come having varying definitions within different academic circles, the term was originally applied to the maximum extent of the Ottoman benjaminpohle.com term has fallen into disuse in English and has been replaced by the terms "Middle East" and "West Asia", the former .
Ancient art refers to the many types of art produced by the advanced cultures of ancient societies with some form of writing, such as those of ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, Persia, Palestine, Egypt, Greece, and benjaminpohle.com art of pre-literate societies is normally referred to as Prehistoric art and is not covered here.
Although some Pre-Columbian cultures developed writing during the. I received more information from FutureLearn on the above-mentioned course, due to start on Monday 20 March “SUPERPOWERS of the ANCIENT WORLD: the NEAR EAST.
Feb 06, · “The ancient Greek, Roman, and Jewish historians, geographers, and orators, speak of the Macedonians as distinct nation, separate from their Greek,”. Ancient Mesopotamian civilization was the earliest in world history, and included the Sumerian cities, ancient Babylon, and the Assyrian empire.