Social and economic effects of it essay

Causes and Social, Economic, Cultural, Religious, Political, and Intellectual Impact The Industrial Revolution in Europe between and had a major impact on the many countries of Europe that forever shaped their outcome. The Industrial Revolution had many causes that are still debatable to this day, the most major influence however was the end of the French Revolution. After the Industrial Revolution, many changes took place throughout the continent economically, socially, culturally, religiously, politically, and intellectually.

Social and economic effects of it essay

There is no question that legalized gambling has brought economic benefits to some communities; just as there is no question that problem gambling has imposed economic and social costs. The important question, from a public policy perspective, is which is larger and by how much. Clearly, to address this and related policy issues, the economic and social costs of pathological gambling need to be considered in the context of the overall impact that gambling has on society.

The benefits are borne out in reports, for example, of increased employment and income, increased tax revenues, enhanced tourism and recreational opportunities, and rising property values e. American Indian communities in particular, both on and off reservations, reportedly have realized positive social and economic effects from gambling "that far outweigh the negative" Cornell et al.

Social and Economic Effects. The National Academies Press. Such costs include traffic congestion, demand for more public infrastructure or services roads, schools, police, fire protection, etc. To the extent that pathological gambling contributes to bankruptcy and bad debts, these increase the cost of credit throughout the economy.

We use the term "costs" to include the negative consequences of pathological gambling for gamblers, their immediate social environments, and the larger community. As we said, the fundamental policy question is whether the benefits or the costs are larger and by how much.

This can in theory be determined with benefit-cost analysis. Complicating such analysis, however, is the fact that social and economic effects can be difficult to measure. This is especially true for intangible social costs, such as emotional pain and other losses experienced by family members of a pathological gambler, and the productivity losses of employees who are pathological or problem gamblers.

Beneficial effects can also be difficult to measure and, as with costs, can vary in type and magnitude across time and gambling venues, as well as type of gambling e.

Ideally, the fundamental benefit-versus-cost question should be asked for each form of gambling and should take into consideration such economic factors as real costs versus economic transfers, tangible and intangible effects, direct and indirect effects, present and future values i.

Moreover, the costs and benefits of pathological gambling need to be considered in the context of the overall effects that gambling has on society.

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Few reliable 1 The committee recognizes that the possibility of benefits deriving from pathological gambling are only theoretical and are neither described in the literature nor supported empirically.

Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Consequently, the committee is not able to shed as much light on the costs of pathological gambling as we would have preferred. We hope, however, that the chapter lays out the issues for readers and provides some guidance to researchers venturing into this area.

Costs to Individuals 2 As discussed in Chapter 2the definition of pathological gambling includes adverse consequences to the individual, such as involvement in crime, financial difficulties, and disruptions of interpersonal relations. According to the criteria presented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMa pathological gambler may be and often is defined by the presence of at least a few of these consequences American Psychiatric Association, Discussions of the costs to the individual of pathological gambling would be circular if we claimed to "discover" these consequences.

Instead, we focus on the magnitude and the extent to which pathological gamblers experience these adverse consequences. The literature on individual costs of pathological gambling considers consequences for the gambler and those with whom the gambler has most frequent interactions, including family, friends, and close associates.

The literature focuses primarily on crime, financial difficulties, and disruptions of interpersonal relations. Like the research on risk factors discussed in Chapter 4because most of these studies are based on treatment populations with small samples and no controls, we urge caution when interpreting the results.

Many families of pathological gamblers suffer from a variety of financial, physical, and emotional problems Abbott et al. The financial con- 2 The committee expresses special thanks to Lia Nower for her synthesis and written presentation of literature pertaining to the social costs of pathological gambling to individuals, families, communities, and society.

Lorenz and Shuttlesworth surveyed the spouses of compulsive gamblers at Gam-Anon, the family component of Gamblers Anonymous, and found that most of them had serious emotional problems and had resorted to drinking, smoking, overeating, and impulse spending.

In a similar study, Lorenz and Yaffee found that the spouses of pathological gamblers suffered from chronic or severe headaches, stomach problems, dizziness, and breathing difficulties, in addition to emotional problems of anger, depression, and isolation.

Jacobs and colleagues compared children who characterized their parents as compulsive gamblers with those who reported their parents as having no gambling problems.

Children of compulsive gamblers were more likely to smoke, drink, and use drugs. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES Economics is the social science that studies the behavior of individuals, groups, and organizations (called economic actors, players, or agents), when they manage or use scarce resources, which have alternative uses, to achieve desired ends.

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Social and economic effects of it essay

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