Pollution started from prehistoric timeswhen man created the first fires. According to a article in the journal Science, " soot " found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires. Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek, Roman, and Chinese metal production.
What are Key Urban Environmental Problems? Defining urban environmental problems While there is now widespread agreement that urban environmental issues are important, there is little coherence in how international agencies and others define the urban environment and identify its critical problems.
This is not just a semantic question, as it is intimately related to how and where funds are allocated and to who can expect to benefit from the resulting environmental improvements.
If urban environmental problems are defined and pursued too broadly, then almost all urban development initiatives can be labeled environmental.
But if urban environmental problems are defined too narrowly, many of the generalizations noted in the introductory paragraph cease to be true.
So common sense suggests that urban environmental problems are threats to present or future human well-being, resulting from human-induced damage to the physical environment, originating in or borne in urban areas.
Localized environmental health problems such as inadequate household water and sanitation and indoor air pollution. City-regional environmental problems such as ambient air pollution, inadequate waste management and pollution of rivers, lakes and coastal areas.
Natural hazards that are not caused or made worse by urban activity.
The environmental impacts of urban activities that are of no concern to humans, either now or in the future. The table presents a wide range of city-related environmental hazards.
Most are the unintended side-effects of human activity in cities. Some might more accurately be ascribed to a lack of preventive measures. In all examples, however, better urban practices and governance could help reduce the burdens, and it is this distinction that is most critical operationally.
However, a review of a range of bilateral and multilateral donors suggests that several factors skew the operational definition of environment away from many of the central environmental concerns of the urban poor: Responsibility for taking the lead on environmental matters is often assigned to divisions that are not directly involved in urban development assistance on the grounds that the environment generally, and natural resources in particular, are primarily rural concerns.
Such divisions are unlikely to have the knowledge or influence to promote urban environmental issues. Moreover, they have a tendency to define environment in natural resource management terms, which can easily lead to ignoring the environmental health issues that are of particular concern to the urban poor.
Broad definitions are employed to illustrate the importance of environmental issues but narrower definitions are used to construct environmental indicators, while still narrower definitions are typically employed to identify environmental programs and projects.
Operationally, a distinction is often made between two different approaches to environmental improvement: However, at least in its early stages, mainstreaming tends to define the environmental agenda in terms of reducing the environmental impacts of development in both urban and rural areas.
Again, this can easily detract from the local environmental threats that are of particular concern to the urban poor. Pressure from Northern environmentalists has been an important factor in convincing international development agencies to address environmental issues.
Northern environmentalists are usually more concerned with regional and global issues involving the natural environment than with local environmental health burdens faced by the urban poor.
Again, this reinforces a tendency to ignore the environmental threats facing the urban poor although it does put pressure on development agencies to address global environmental issues. As international and local interest and capacity to address urban environmental problems increases, new, more locally-driven environmental strategies are also emerging.
Many cities in Europe and America, and increasingly in Latin America, Asia and Africa are experimenting with city-wide initiatives to address environmental problems. Bilateral and even more often multilateral donors have been supporting a number of these initiatives, often called Local Agenda 21s.
There is still much to learn from these local initiatives, including perhaps how best to define urban environmental problems in their local context.
Ultimately, while it may be useful to define urban environmental problems in the abstract, operationally it may be more important to respond to local initiatives in a coherent fashion, whether or not they fit some abstract definition.Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst toxic pollution problems in the Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report.
According to the World Health Organization report. The two main causes of pollutants in urban areas are transportation Fair Use Policy; Help Centre; Notifications.
The Causes Of Urban Pollution Environmental Sciences Essay.
Print Reference this. which shows concern for fixing the pollution problem, which focuses more on air pollution. Traffic congestion and the sheer amount of traffic in cities also contribute mightily to air pollution, which we consider here as a separate urban problem. Traffic creates pollution from motor vehicles’ exhaust systems, and some cities have factories and other enterprises that also pollute.
City-regional environmental problems such as ambient air pollution, inadequate waste management and pollution of rivers, lakes and coastal areas.
Extra-urban impacts of urban activities such as ecological disruption and resource depletion in a city’s hinterland, and emissions of . Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges.
Status of common pollutant problems in brief. Today, pollution levels in many areas of the United States exceed national air quality standards for at least one of the six common pollutants: Elevated risks can occur in urban areas, near industrial facilities, and in areas with high.
What non-technological solutions to the problem of urban pollution were promoted by reformers? Were these approaches effective? How did they in turn generate other problems?