This chapter discusses the current USCom MPLS network design, its evolution, and how USCom characteristics and objectives influenced the corresponding design decisions that were made in order to illustrate how design decisions should stem from the characteristics of your company.
Possessive 's The girl's book. Order of acquisition In the s, several studies investigated the order in which learners acquired different grammatical structures. Furthermore, it showed that the order was the same for adults and children, and that it did not even change if the learner had language lessons.
This supported the idea that there were factors other than language transfer involved in learning second languages, and was a strong confirmation of the concept of interlanguage.
However, the studies did not find that the orders were exactly the same. Although there were remarkable similarities in the order in which all learners learned second-language grammar, there were still some differences among individuals Input interaction and sla among learners with different first languages.
It is also difficult to tell when exactly a grammatical structure has been learned, as learners may use structures correctly in some situations but not in others. Thus it is more accurate to speak of sequences of acquisition, in which specific grammatical features in a language are acquired before or after certain others but the Input interaction and sla order of acquisition is less rigid.
For example, if neither feature B nor feature D can be acquired until feature A has been acquired and if feature C cannot be acquired until feature B has been acquired but if the acquisition of feature D does not require the possession of feature B or, therefore, of feature Cthen both acquisition order A, B, C, D and acquisition order A, D, B, C are possible.
Variability[ edit ] Although second-language acquisition proceeds in discrete sequences, it does not progress from one step of a sequence to the next in an orderly fashion.
There can be considerable variability in features of learners' interlanguage while progressing from one stage to the next. However, most variation is systemic variation, variation that depends on the context of utterances the learner makes. Language transfer One important difference between first-language acquisition and second-language acquisition is that the process of second-language acquisition is influenced by languages that the learner already knows.
This influence is known as language transfer. If this happens, the acquisition of more complicated language forms may be delayed in favor of simpler language forms that resemble those of the language the learner is familiar with.
Stephen Krashen took a very strong position on the importance of input, asserting that comprehensible input is all that is necessary for second-language acquisition.
Further evidence for input comes from studies on reading: One tenet of Krashen's theory is that input should not be grammatically sequenced. He claims that such sequencing, as found in language classrooms where lessons involve practicing a "structure of the day", is not necessary, and may even be harmful.
For example, students enrolled in French- language immersion programs in Canada still produced non-native-like grammar when they spoke, even though they had years of meaning-focused lessons and their listening skills were statistically native-level.
According to Long's interaction hypothesis the conditions for acquisition are especially good when interacting in the second language; specifically, conditions are good when a breakdown in communication occurs and learners must negotiate for meaning.
The modifications to speech arising from interactions like this help make input more comprehensible, provide feedback to the learner, and push learners to modify their speech.
This area of research is based in the more general area of cognitive scienceand uses many concepts and models used in more general cognitive theories of learning. As such, cognitive theories view second-language acquisition as a special case of more general learning mechanisms in the brain.
This puts them in direct contrast with linguistic theories, which posit that language acquisition uses a unique process different from other types of learning.
On the whole, it can be concluded that input and output are vital to SLA through interaction as even Krashen‟s model relies on input described as „foreigner talk‟ on the part of the interlocutor to facilitate learner comprehension and, thus, acquisition. This is a landmark publication - the first to concertedly address the implications for SLA of Slobin's thinking-for-speaking hypothesis. Do processes of conceptualisation that L1s predispose speakers to affect their L2 production, and if so in what ways? Krashen’s Input Hypothesis the Input Hypothesis is central to all of acquisition - L2 acquisition depends on comprehensible input INPUT, INTERACTION & OUTPUT HYPOTHESIS IN SLA “negotiation for meaning, and especially negotiation work that triggers interaction adjustments by the NS or more competent interlocutor, facilitates acquisition.
In the first stage, learners retain certain features of the language input in short-term memory. This retained input is known as intake.
Then, learners convert some of this intake into second-language knowledge, which is stored in long-term memory. Finally, learners use this second-language knowledge to produce spoken output.
In the early days of second-language acquisition research on interlanguage was seen as the basic representation of second-language knowledge; however, more recent research has taken a number of different approaches in characterizing the mental representation of language knowledge.
Micro-processes include attention;  working memory;  integration and restructuring. Restructuring is the process by which learners change their interlanguage systems;  and monitoring is the conscious attending of learners to their own language output.
Speech planning can have an effect on learners' spoken output, and research in this area has focused on how planning affects three aspects of speech: Of these three, planning effects on fluency has had the most research attention. Their effect on second-language acquisition is unclear, with some researchers claiming they help it, and others claiming the opposite.
For example, a learner may use more polite language when talking to someone of higher social status, but more informal language when talking with friends. Immersion programs are educational programs where children are instructed in an L2 language.
The goal of these programs is to develop a high level of proficiency in both the L1 and L2 languages. Students in immersion programs have been shown to have greater levels of proficiency in their second language than students who receive second language education only as a subject in school.Importance of Language Input in Language Learning Taher Bahrani (), in the input-interaction model, the language input that language learners receive is strengthened by the manipulation of the input through interaction which forms a basis for SLA.
one of the most influential SLA hypotheses concerned with the role and . Glossary of Second and Primary Language Acquisition Terms: Term: Usage: Additive Model/Common Underlying Proficiency: Theory that both acquisition of first and second languages can contribute to underlying language proficiency.
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Long’s interaction hypothesis (a, b, , ) evolved from work by Hatch () on the importance of conversation to developing grammar and from claims by Krashen () that comprehensible input is a necessary.