Flutes of fire essays on california indian languages

Toward a Monolingual USA? Language Policy in the s and s Pluralist discourses slowly found their way back into educational policy after World War II.

Flutes of fire essays on california indian languages

Toward a Monolingual USA? Language Policy in the s and s Pluralist discourses slowly found their way back into educational policy after World War II. The shift from assimilationist policies to recognition of different languages and cultures in school was due in part to a steady decline in immigration that had begun with the implementation of legal restrictions and continued during World War II.

This trend greatly lessened the pre-World War I anxieties about immigrants and their ability to assimilate. Later, the civil rights movement set the stage for the recognition of minority group rights and antidiscrimination legislation.

The landmark Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education that declared separate educational facilities inherently unequal began an era of integration and desegregation.

The case played a major role in making equal educational opportunity a central focus of educational policies. Further, World War II had increased awareness of the need for knowing foreign languages and, under the influence of the cold war and competition with Russia, major initiatives were undertaken by the federal government to ensure a competitive act.

One of these was the National Defense Education Act ofwhich promoted extensive foreign language programs for language majority speakers. In the s, a pluralistic experiment in bilingual education was initiated in Miami, Florida.

In a unique move, Coral Way Elementary School made the bilingual option available to native English speakers as well as Cuban refugees Chapter 5. For both groups, bilingualism was considered an asset and enrichment.

However, this pluralist educational approach was the exception.

Flutes of fire essays on california indian languages

Most language policies initiated during this period were based on an assimilationist approach, though these policies promoted assimilation in a more gentle way than those advocated during the Americanization movement in the s.

Bilingual approaches were endorsed and implemented but mostly with an assimilationist intent Spener, Though room for more pluralist interpretation existed at the local implementation levelthis "reluctant bilingual discourse" dominated federal legislation as well as court decisions and their enforcement.

Programs such as Head Start preschool and Title I supplemental support services for at-risk students were initiated under this law. The BEA was the first comprehensive federal intervention in the schooling of language minority students.

Its uncontroversial passage in reflected agreement over the underachievement of a steadily increasing number of language minority students in schools. The BEA was introduced by Senator Ralph Yarborough of Texas, who noted that Spanish-speaking students in his state completed, on average, 4 years of schooling less than their Anglo peers.

The lack of resources and trained personnel and the absence of special programs to meet the needs of these students contributed to this educational failure. Yarborough proposed bilingual education as a solution to what he perceived was a problem of English proficiency.

The problem is that many of our school-age children come from homes where the mother tongue is not English. As a result, these children enter school not speaking English and not able to understand the instructions that is [sic] all conducted in English.

We received almost unanimous enthusiasm and support for this legislation as being an effective remedial program. Only with the re-authorization of the BEA was bilingual education formally defined as a program where "there is instruction given in, and the study of English, and, to the extent necessary to allow a child to progress effectively through the educational system, the native language of the children of limited English-speaking ability" Lyons,p.

The BEA was not a mandate for bilingual education. Since education is the responsibility of the states, the federal government can only create financial incentives through grant programs.Flutes of Fire: Essays on California Indian Languages by Hinton, Leanne and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at benjaminpohle.com Native American Dictionaries.

Index of Indigenous languages Index of Native American cultures What's new on our site today!. Native Languages of the Americas: American Indian Dictionaries and Language Books This page is our collection of links to Native American dictionaries, language learning books, and audio courses for sale online.

Bilingual Education Act () Bilingual Education Act. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of was a major effort by the Johnson administration to address the effects of poverty on educational and economic achievement.

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