The question arises where one positions oneself, one's way of conducting research, and one's ideas about the teaching and learning of qualitative methods in the social sciences between these opposing cultures of orientation and action.
Introduction In general, metacognition is thinking about thinking. If students are aware of how committed or uncommitted they are to reaching goals, of how strong or weak is their disposition to persist, and of how focused or wandering is their attention to a thinking or writing task, they can regulate their commitment, disposition, and attention Marzano et al.
For example, if students were aware of a lack of commitment to writing a long research assignment, noticed that they were procrastinating, and were aware that they were distracted by more appealing ways to spend their time, they could then take action to get started on the assignment.
But until they are aware of their procrastination and take control by making a plan for doing the assignment, they will blissfully continue to neglect the assignment.
Metacognition and Three Types of Knowledge To increase their metacognitive abilities, students need to possess and be aware of three kinds of content knowledge: Declarative knowledge is the factual information that one knows; it can be declared—spoken or written.
Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to do something, of how to perform the steps in a process; for example, knowing the mass of an object and its rate of speed and how to do the calculation. Conditional knowledge is knowledge about when to use a procedure, skill, or strategy and when not to use it; why a procedure works and under what conditions; and why one procedure is better than another.
For example, students need to recognize that an exam word problem requires the calculation of momentum as part of its solution. This notion of three kinds of knowledge applies to learning strategies as well as course content.
When they study, students need the declarative knowledge that 1 all reading assignments are not alike; for example, that a history textbook chapter with factual information differs from a primary historical document, which is different from an article interpreting or analyzing that document.
They need to know that stories and novels differ from arguments. Furthermore they need to know that there are different kinds of note taking strategies useful for annotating these different types of texts.
And 2 students need to know how to actually write different kinds of notes procedural knowledgeand 3 they need to know when to apply these kinds of notes when they study conditional knowledge. Knowledge of study strategies is among the kinds of metacognitive knowledge, and it too requires awareness of all three kinds of knowledge.
Metacognition and Study Strategies Research shows that explicitly teaching study strategies in content courses improves learning. Rote memorization is the usual learning strategy—and often the only strategy—employed by high school students when they go to college Nist, But students who have learned only the strategy of reading to pass a quiz on the information will not go beyond this strategy.
Students need to know they have choices about which strategies to employ in different contexts.
And students who learn study skills in one course need to apply study strategies in other contexts than where they first learned it. Students need to monitor their application of study strategies. Metacognitive awareness of their learning processes is as important as their monitoring of their learning of the course content.
Monitoring Problems with Learning When students monitor their learning, they can become aware of potential problems. Nickerson, Perkins, and Smith in The Teaching of Thinking have categorized several types of problems with learning. Problems with Process; Making errors in encoding, operations, and goals: Errors in Encoding Missing important data or not separating relevant from irrelevant data.
For example, some literature students will base their interpretation of a poem on just the first stanza. Errors in Operations Failing to select the right subskills to apply. For example, when proofreading, some students will just read to see if it sounds right, rather than making separatepasses that check for fragments, subject-verb misagreement, and other errors they have learned from experience they are likely to make.
Failing to divide a task into subparts. For example, some math students will jump right to what they think is the final calculation to get the desired answer. Errors in Goal Seeking Misrepresenting the task. For example, students in a speech communication class instead of doing the assigned task of analyzing and classifying group communication strategies used in their group discussions will just write a narrative of who said what.
Not understanding the criteria to apply. For example, when asked to evaluate the support provided for the major claim of an article, students will explain why they liked the article rather than apply appropriate evaluative criteria.
Problems with Cognitive Load Too many subskills necessary to do a task.Teachers need to consider the intellectual developmental differences of young adolescents when planning learning experiences. To address this diversity, teachers need to provide an assortment of educational approaches and materials that are appropriate for their students' wide-ranging cognitive abilities.
Dimensions of Learning. is a learning-centered framework for instructional planning that translates the latest research on cognition and learning into practical classroom strategies. The framework serves at least three major purposes. To help insure that students’ reflection is as thorough as possible, and to encourage development of the whole person, one of the requirements for the personal development reflective essay is that it cover four distinctive areas, or dimensions, of students’ lives.
developmental challenges and learning disabilities These professionals spend a great deal of time investigating and observing how these processes occur under normal circumstances, but they are also interested in learning about things that can disrupt developmental processes.
A Developmental Writing Scale Yigal Attali and Don Powers ETS, Princeton, NJ These measures are also used in the automated essay and all of the features are indicators of generally acknowledged dimensions of good writing (although by no means cover all aspects of good writing).
Consequently, the same features are. Dimensions of Learning.
is a learning-centered framework for instructional planning that translates the latest research on cognition and learning into practical classroom strategies.
The framework serves at least three major purposes.