# Determining standard reduction potentials equilibrium constants

Honors Chemistry is designed for students who have demonstrated strong ability in previous science courses. In this fast-paced, demanding course, the main topics--which include atomic theory, nuclear chemistry, periodicity, chemical reactions, stoichiometry, gases, solutions, reaction kinetics, equilibrium, acid-base theory, oxidation-reduction, and organic chemistry--are studied at an advanced level, with an focus on both conceptual understanding and problem-solving. Quantitative aspects of chemical concepts are emphasized throughout the course. Laboratory experimentation is an integral part of this class, and students write a number of formal reports which require demonstration of a sophisticated understanding of the relevant theories and principles. Some useful constants in thermodynamics: The Kelvin scale is based on defining 0 K, "absolute zero," as the temperature at zero pressure where the volumes of all gases is zero--this turns out to be This definition means that the freezing temperature of water is All thermodynamic calculations are done in Kelvin!

Joules and Calories Joules and calories and kilocalories: A calorie is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water from Many times it is easiest to solve equations or problems by conducting "dimensional analysis," which just means using the same units throughout an equation, seeing that both sides of an equation contain balanced units, and that the answer is cast in terms of units that you want.

As an example, consider the difference between temperature units of K and heat units of J. Two bodies may have the same temperature, but contain different amounts of heat; likewise, two bodies may contain the same heat, but be at different temperatures.

In fact, the heat capacity C describes the amount of heat dQ involved in changing one mole of a substance by a given temperature increment dT: The specific heat is essentially the same number, but is expressed per gram rather than per mole.

Don't forget significant digits. Think about some everyday experiences you have with chemical reactions. Your ability to melt and refreeze ice shows you that H2O has two phases and that the reaction transforming one to the other is reversible--apparently the crystallization of ice requires removing some heat.

Frying an egg is an example of an irreversible reaction. If you dissolve halite in water you can tell that the NaCl is still present in some form by tasting the water. Why does the NaCl dissolve? Does it give off heat? Does it require energy?

## Nernst Equation - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

How is it that diamond, a high-pressure form of C, can coexist with the low pressure form, graphite, at Earth's surface? Do diamond and graphite both have the same energy?

If you burn graphite and diamond, which gives you more energy? When dynamite explodes, why does it change into a rapidly expanding gas, which provides the energy release, plus a few solids? Chemical thermodynamics provides us with a means of answering these questions and more.

A Few Definitions A system is any part of the universe we choose to consider. Matter and energy can flow in or out of an open system but only energy can be added to or subtracted from a closed system. An isolated system is one in which matter and energy are conserved.

A phase is a homogeneous body of matter. The components of a system are defined by a set of chemical formula used to describe the system. Extensive parameters are proportional to mass e. Intensive parameters are independent of mass e.

## Publications, Machine Learning Group, Department of Engineering, Cambridge

Power and Limitations Thermodynamics allows you to predict how chemical systems should behave from a supra-atomic "black-box" level--it says nothing about how chemical systems will behave.Publications Definition of Terms. The definitions found here pertain to the field of science involved with solution and colloid chemistry.

Similar terms from other. Nov 21,  · MCAT topics list by Gold Standard MCAT to guide students on what to study for the exam. Nernst Equation. The Nernst equation is an important relation which is used to determine reaction equilibrium constants and concentration potentials as well as to calculate the minimum energy required in electrodialysis as will be shown later.

Nernst Equation. The Nernst equation is an important relation which is used to determine reaction equilibrium constants and concentration potentials as well as to calculate the minimum energy required in electrodialysis as will be shown later.

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Thermodynamics Notes