Counter reformation essays for scholarships

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Counter reformation essays for scholarships

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From early in the twelfth century onward there are calls for reform. Between and nine church-councils are held with church reforms as their primary intent. The councils all fail to reach significant accord. The clergy is unable to live according to church doctrine, and the abuse of church ceremonies and practices continues.

In the first half of the sixteenth century western Europe experiences a wide range of social, artistic, and geo-political changes as the result of a conflict within the Catholic church. This conflict is called the Protestant Reformation, and the Catholic response to it is called the Counter-Reformation.

As the spirit of reform spreads other leaders appear: Mendicant orders such as the Jesuits are formed counter reformation essays for scholarships reinforce Catholic doctrine, and the Church will continue to be supported by t he major European monarchies.

Ultimately, the Reformation creates a north-south split in Europe. In general the northern countries become Protestant while the south remains Catholic.

A wave of iconoclasm sweeps through the north. Stained glass windows are broken, images of the saints are destroyed, and pipe organs are removed from churches.

The Catholic churches respond to this iconoclasm with an exuberant style of art and architecture called the baroque. The baroque is in ideological opposition to Protestant severity. Not until the Neoclassical style of the eighteenth century will there be an effective attempt to resolve this dichotomy.

The plain churches of the north are reminders of Protestant beliefs. He joins a monastic order, the Augustinians, and is eventually assigned as a lecturer at the University of Wittenberg.

The purchase of an indulgence assures the buyer a remission of sins and thus a shorter period in purgatory. The selling of indulgences is a papal privilege which has been worked to the breaking point. Luther uses this opportunity to draw up a list of church activities for which he demands resolution and change.

This list, the Ninety-Five Theses is centered around a call to eliminate the sale of indulgences. The Church demands that he retract a number of his protests. Luther is summoned to an imperial Diet in Augsburg in Retribution for his crime should have fallen rapidly, but the election of a new emperor, Charles Vslows the justice system.

Luther uses his time to plan a complete reform program for the church. He is is forced to escape and live for a year in hiding, but his reforms have taken root.

The split in the Roman Church is now irreconcilable. In the south, Belgium, Catholicism remains strong, while in the provinces of the north, the Netherlands, Protestant reforms are adopted and the Dutch Calvinists rebel against the Catholic Habsburg rule.

Though the Catholic Holy Roman Empire does not end untilthe German states are irrevocably separated from the influence of Rome during the age of the Reformation. The German princes of the north protect Luther from the pope and the Holy Roman emperor, while gaining political power by assuming many of the privileges once reserved for the church.

The Peace of Augsburg in temporarily reconciles the Protestant north and the Catholic south in the German states, and the conflict moves west into the monarchies of Spain and France. The Spanish Habsburgs and the French Valois come to an uneasy truce in Both monarchies are strongly Catholic, and both realize that only together can they hope to quell Protestant uprisings.

Once the Reformation is under way the common people perceive it as a means of social empowerment.T HE essays collected in this book have mostly, but not all, appeared in print. In Europe they have appeared in the Rationalist Annual, the Bermondsey Book, the Nation, the Daily Mail, the World To-Day, the Manchester Guardian, the Graphic, the Weekly Dispatch, Discovery, Modern Science, and the Haagsche benjaminpohle.com America they have been published by Harper’s Magazine, the Forum, the.

The term Counter-Reformation suggests that the Catholic movement began after the Protestant Reformation, whereas in truth the reform originally began in the Roman Catholic Church, and Luther was a Catholic reformer before he became a Protestant.

5/5(1). This conflict is called the Protestant Reformation, and the Catholic response to it is called the Counter-Reformation.

counter reformation essays for scholarships

The Reformation movement begins in when a German Augustinian friar named Martin Luther posts a list of grievances, called the Ninety-Five Theses, against the Roman Catholic Church.

Unformatted text preview: 16 th century Europe.(B #3) 6.

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Analyze the aims, methods, and degree of success of the Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) in the 16 th century. benjaminpohle.comst Renaissance Florence with Reformation Geneva with respect to religion, government, and everyday life.

The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation - A picture is worth a thousand words. In the 17th century, the Baroque period became one of the most prominent art styles in the Western world (Sayre ).

counter reformation essays for scholarships

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