References and Further Reading 1.
Gauthamadas Lodge Prudentia No. Book of Changes A Freemason is informed, during his initiation, that the practices of moral and social virtue are the foundations of Freemasonry that distinguish it from other institutions. He is constantly urged, to practice the principles of moral virtue and develop a character of moral uprightness.
Thus, it is necessary, for freemasons, to understand clearly, the principles of moral virtue. So what exactly is Moral Virtue? According to him, the four virtues are Wisdom, and Temperance both of which unite with Courage to give birth to Justice.
Aristotle — BCconcurs with Plato but differentiates them into two systems viz Intellectual virtue and Moral virtue. They are abiding A discussion on moral egoism of character that find expression both in purpose and in action, and differ from momentary passions such as anger and pity.
He considers Wisdom, the key Intellectual Virtue which governs ethical behaviour, and understanding, and which is expressed in scientific endeavour and contemplation. It is exemplified by Courage, Temperance, and Liberality and is expressed in actions that avoid both excess and defect, taking a middle ground due to a need to feel a good balance.
He agreed with Aristotle on the composition of moral virtues with just one difference, adding Fortitude: Temperance in foregoing pleasures: Prudence in the choice between good and evil: Thomas, who derived them from the subjects, or faculties, in which they reside and which they perfect: Prudence in the intellect; Justice in the will; Temperance in the sensitive appetites restraining pleasure; and Fortitude in the resistance to fear which would deter a person from strenuous action under difficulties.
Thomas the cardinal virtues are also derived from their formal objects or the perceived kinds of rational good which they generally seek. The rational good as an object for the action of intellect demands the virtue of Prudence; The rational good as on object for the dictate of prudence, when communicated to the will for exertion in relation to other persons, gives rise to Justice giving to every man his due.
The order of rational good imposed on the appetite for pleasures demands the virtue of Temperance; and as imposed on the appetite which is repelled by fear-inspiring tasks, it demands Fortitude.
This brings us to the question, are the cardinal virtues of St. Thomas, also moral virtues? According to later Christian theology the moral virtues are those which perfect the appetitive faculties of the soul, namely, the will and the sensuous appetite. The moral virtues excel the intellectual, because they give not only the facility, but also the right use of the facility, for well- doing.
Christian theology expands further on the four moral virtues annexing further characters to each. Justice regulates man in relations with his fellow-men. It disposes us to respect the rights of others, to give each man his due. Among the virtues annexed to justice are: Religion, which regulates man in his relations to God, disposing him to pay due worship to his Creator; Piety, which disposes to the fulfillment of duties which one owes to parents and country patriotism ; Gratitude, which inclines one to recognition of benefits received; Liberality, which restrains the immoderate affection for wealth from withholding seasonable gifts or expenses; Affability, by which one is suitably adapted to his fellow-men in social intercourse so as to behave toward each appropriately.
Temperance restrains the undue impulse of desire for sensible pleasure and is that moral virtue which moderates the desires and pleasures of the sensuous appetite in accordance with reason. The components virtues of temperance are: Continence, which according to the Scholastics, restrains the will from consenting to violent movements or concupiscence; Humility, which restrains inordinate desires of one's own excellence; Meekness, which checks inordinate movements of anger; Modesty or decorum, which consists in duly ordering the external movements of anger; to the direction of reason.
Good cheer, which disposes to moderation in sports, games, and jests, in accordance with the dictates of reason, taking into consideration the circumstance of person, season, and place. Fortitude causes man to be brave when he would otherwise shrink, contrary to reason, from dangers or difficulties.
Fortitude removes from the will those obstacles arising from the difficulties of doing what reason requires. Hence fortitude, which implies a certain moral strength and courage, is the virtue by which one meets and sustains dangers and difficulties, even death itself, and in never through fear of these deterred from the pursuit of good which reason dictates.
The component virtues of fortitude are: Patience, which disposes us to bear present evils with equanimity; the patient man is one who endures present evils in such a way as not to be inordinately cast down by them.
Munificence, which disposes one to incur great expenses for the suitable doing of a great work. It differs from mere liberality, as it has reference not to ordinary expenses and donations, but to those that are great.
Hence the munificent man is one who gives with royal generosity, who does things not on a cheap but magnificent scale, always, however, in accordance with right reason. Magnanimity, which implies a reaching out of the soul to great things, regulates man with regard to honours.
The magnanimous man aims at great works in every line of virtue, making it his purpose to do things worthy of great honour. Nor is magnanimity incompatible with true humility. Thomas, "makes a man deem himself worthy of great honours in consideration of the Divine gifts he possesses; whilst humility makes him think little of himself in consideration of his own short-comings".The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism is a collection of essays by Ayn Rand and Nathaniel benjaminpohle.com of the essays originally appeared in The Objectivist benjaminpohle.com book covers ethical issues from the perspective of Rand's Objectivist benjaminpohle.com of its themes include the identification and validation of egoism .
An exploration of Moral Virtues As Applicable to Freemasonry.
A Freemason is informed, during his initiation, that the practices of moral and social virtue are the foundations of Freemasonry | . Analects , and how Confucius envisioned moral progress. Confucius’ remark at Analects is often cited to show that he thought proper moral development begins with filial piety and then extends that attitude to ever-larger groups of people (ever less intensely).
Ethical egoism is the normative theory that the promotion of one's own good is in accordance with morality. In the strong version, it is held that it is always moral to promote one's own good, and it is never moral not to promote it.
The Ethical Issue - The ethical issue at hand, is how the patient of a nursing home, her family and the nursing home personnel will come to an agreement for the best healthcare treatment for the patient.
John Stuart Mill (–) was the most famous and influential British philosopher of the nineteenth century. He was one of the last systematic philosophers, making significant contributions in logic, metaphysics, epistemology, .