However, unlike the psychosexual theory by Freud the psychosocial theory mainly describes the impact that social experience has on a given individual across his or her lifespan Flannagan, In accordance with the psychosexual theory, the first stage is described as the oral stage where the infant mainly interacts with the society with the mouth. During this stage, the infant is sorely dependent upon the caretakers and hence develops a sense of trust and comfort through the stimulation of the oral organ.
OutcaultThe European, American, and Japanese comics traditions have followed different paths. The ukiyo-e artist Hokusai popularized the Japanese term for comics and cartooning, mangain the early 19th century.
British comicsHistory of American comicsand American comic book Illustrated humour periodicals were popular in 19th-century Britain, the earliest of which was the short-lived The Glasgow Looking Glass in The most popular was Punch which popularized the term cartoon for its humorous caricatures.
Early Sunday strips were full-page  and often in colour. Between and cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, movement, and speech balloons. The Flame by Will Eisner. In the latter half of the 20th century, popular culture won greater acceptance, and the lines between high and low culture began to blur.
Comics nevertheless continued to be stigmatized, as the medium was seen as entertainment for children and illiterates. Since the s, mergers resulted in fewer large publishers, while smaller publishers proliferated.
Sales overall continued to grow despite the trend towards a shrinking print market. History of manga Rakuten Kitazawa created the first modern Japanese comic strip.
New publications in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, and at the end of the s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to appear in Japan,  as well as some American comic strips.
In the US, daily strips have normally occupied a single tier, while Sunday strips have been given multiple tiers.
In the early 20th century, daily strips were typically in black-and-white and Sundays were usually in colour and often occupied a full page. Comic booksprimarily an American format, are thin periodicals  usually published in colour.
Those in the middle group of Franco-Belgian comics are in the standard A4-size comic album format. The right group of graphic novels is from English-speaking countries, where there is no standard format.
Book-length comics take different forms in different cultures. European comic albums are most commonly printed in A4-size  colour volumes. Otherwise, bound volumes of comics are called graphic novels and are available in various formats.
Despite incorporating the term "novel"—a term normally associated with fiction—"graphic novel" also refers to non-fiction and collections of short works. Definitions of comics which emphasize sequence usually exclude gag, editorial, and other single-panel cartoons; they can be included in definitions that emphasize the combination of word and image.
They are able to reach large audiences, and new readers usually can access archived installments. These storyboards are not intended as an end product and are rarely seen by the public. Harvey Similar to the problems of defining literature and film,  no consensus has been reached on a definition of the comics medium,  and attempted definitions and descriptions have fallen prey to numerous exceptions.
HarveyWill Eisner David Carrier,  Alain Rey,  and Lawrence Grove emphasize the combination of text and images,  though there are prominent examples of pantomime comics throughout its history.
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Comics is a medium used to express ideas by images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images.
Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing.